Thursday, May 3, 2012

100 years of Indian Film Industry


There are two important dates April 13, 1913 and May 3, 1913 in the Indian Film History. On 13 April, 1913, Dada Saheb Falke produced his movie Raja Harish Chandra in Olympia Theatre with the presence of some known people. That day was Saturday. For that reason, that day created a history.
But for some reason, Dada Saheb Falke released the same movie in Caronation Theatre of Mumbai at May 3, 1913. A great response of audience of that time proved that this was the birth of a revolution of Indian Cinema.

As Firoze Rangonwala wrote in his book A Pictorial History of Indian Cinema
"As historical base, 21 April and 3 May both are important dates but Indian Cinema has completed his journey of 100 years this year. There are many ups and downs in this long journey. But this medium is the most important as art side for inspiring Indian conscious.”

This line of Firoze Rangoonwala is quite positive. How is increasing the Influence of Cinema on the Indian audience. The answer of this question can be got from this fact that economic condition of Bollywood is getting better and better every year. For example in 2010, the total business of Indian movies was 87.7 billion. Some economist believes that this business will achieve 136.6 billion in the year 2015.

But now we want only to see that how Indian audience is effected by cinema? There is no doubt that the main motive of cinema is to take us to imaginative world. But it makes social, political & economic conditions as its base. Audience of different casts, religion & ages watch movies in the cinema hall. But there is still a need to understand the magical attraction of greatness of Cinema. This can be done by dividing its history in few Periods.

In the period of 1913-1930, Indian cinema was totally based on religious and historical movies. There was a great respect to those movies. As Ashish Rajadhaksh and Paul William writes in his book Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema
“Audience of that period was so devotees to the religious movies that they welcomed their angels with throwing coins on the screen.”
So Lanka Dahan (1917) & Kalia Mardaan (1919) got a huge success.

In the period of 1931-1950, Producer Aardeshir Irani started talkative movie Aalam Aara. Now social medium based movies took the place of religious movies. Barua's Devdas (1935) presented the sadness of young generation with the help of K. L. Saigal. Saigal was still there as a play back singer but play back singing started with Nitin Bose's Dhoop Chhaun. Then songs became the important part of the movies. And Music started to get its grip on movies. The success of Achhoot Kanya (1935), Kismat (1943), Ratan (1943) was totolly based on Music.

This was the starting of combination of Social, Romantic, Historical movies. And the actors who play different roles were seen in different color. For example the triplet of Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand and Raj Kapoor presented the realities of life in the period of 1957 to 1960.
Dilip Kumar as griever, Dev Anand as Romantic and Raj Kapoor as Comedian got success. The classical movies like Mughal-e-Aazam, Awaara & Guide were released on this base. And no one can forget Guru Dutt’s contribution to Indian film Industry also.

As the time went on, the effect of this Cinema was started accepting by everybody. Shammi Kapoor (Junglee), Rajendra Kumar (Sangam) and Rajesh Khanna (Aradhana) are the few example of this point.
In the period of 1961-1970, all the movies represented the modern India. Mrinal Sen's Bhuwan was one of its examples. By getting inspiration from Mrinal Sen, Shyam Benegal (Ankur), M. S. Mathiu (Garam Hawa) released emotional movies. Super Star Amitabh Bacchan presented Zanjeer and Sholay as an angry young man in the same period.

But in the period of 1981-1990, the entrance of videos made some effect on the Indian Cinema. To get rid of this, social-romantic movies and family movies were seen in the period of 1991-2000. Hum Aapke Hain Kaun & Dilwale Dulhania Le Jaayenge were the few examples.
Then the world of Multiplex Theatres came. From 2000 to 2012, the importance was given to civil audience based movies. Shahrukh Khan, Aamir Khan, Salman Khan presented many successful movies in front of audience this period.
It is clear that Indian Cinema is still continuous. Accepting its greatness and for completing 100 years, Indian Government is doing some efforts for Indian cinema. Government decides to present National Awards on 3 May. Government also decides to make a Museum in Gulshan Mehal of Mumbai. And it was inaugurated on May 3.But Indian Cinema got praise and tribute from the audience every time. Audience is still attached after completing the Journey of 100 years. There is no doubt that Cinema is an important part of the Indian Culture.

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